LRD Booklets July 2020

Law at work 2020 - the trade union guide to employment law

buy now

Introduction

Introduction [pages 15-16] (886 words)

This 32nd edition of Law at Work is published at a time when one issue is dominating all aspects of normal life, at home and at work. Many workers, ...
Open access

Chapter 1

1. The employment law system [ch 1: page 16] (234 words)

Employment rights in the UK have two main sources. The first is legislation enacted by Parliament in the form of Acts of Parliament or regulations. ...
Subscribers only

Brexit and employment rights [ch 1: pages 17-18] (525 words)

Employment law once the transition period has ended [ch 1: pages 18-19] (324 words)

Impact of Brexit on worker rights [ch 1: pages 19-20] (571 words)

Human rights law [ch 1: pages 21-22] (514 words)

The International Labour Organisation (ILO) [ch 1: page 22] (101 words)

The employment tribunal system [ch 1: pages 22-24] (910 words)

Personal injury claims [ch 1: page 24] (345 words)

Personal injury claims in the small claims court [ch 1: pages 24-25] (387 words)

Regulatory enforcement regimes [ch 1: pages 26-27] (468 words)

Modern slavery [ch 1: page 27] (174 words)

The Gangmasters and Labour Abuse Authority [ch 1: pages 27-28] (227 words)

Criminal law [ch 1: page 28] (47 words)

Employment regulation in Scotland [ch 1: pages 28-29] (281 words)

Key employment law differences in Northern Ireland [ch 1: pages 29-30] (327 words)

Key employment law differences in Wales [ch 1: page 30] (197 words)

Chapter 2

2. Categories of worker [ch 2: pages 31-34] (1,018 words)

This Chapter summarises the tests used to establish employment status and explains how they are applied by employment tribunals to different work ...
Subscribers only

Employee, worker or self-employed [ch 2: pages 34-35] (521 words)

Mutuality of obligation [ch 2: pages 35-36] (497 words)

Personal service [ch 2: pages 36-37] (212 words)

Degree of control [ch 2: page 37] (115 words)

Genuine self-employment [ch 2: page 37] (257 words)

Covid 19 Coronavirus – government package for self-employed [ch 2: pages 38-39] (490 words)

Challenging false self-employment [ch 2: pages 39-41] (1,128 words)

Checklist: Are you really self-employed? [ch 2: page 42] (301 words)

Zero hours contract workers [ch 2: pages 42-46] (1,375 words)

Part-time workers [ch 2: pages 46-49] (1,416 words)

Homeworkers [ch 2: page 49] (62 words)

Volunteers [ch 2: page 49] (215 words)

Interns [ch 2: page 50] (309 words)

Apprentices [ch 2: pages 50-52] (797 words)

Traineeships [ch 2: page 53] (99 words)

Children [ch 2: page 53] (203 words)

Temporary (fixed-term) employees [ch 2: pages 53-55] (820 words)

Agency workers [ch 2: pages 55-56] (294 words)

Additional rights under the Agency Workers Regulations 2010 [ch 2: pages 56-59] (1,156 words)

Who is protected by the AWR [ch 2: pages 59-60] (577 words)

The Swedish derogation [ch 2: pages 60-61] (310 words)

The Conduct of Employment Agencies Regulations [ch 2: page 61] (183 words)

Key Information Document [ch 2: pages 61-62] (487 words)

Ban on replacing striking workers [ch 2: page 63] (37 words)

No rights to claim unfair dismissal or redundancy [ch 2: page 63] (271 words)

Umbrella companies [ch 2: pages 63-64] (512 words)

Personal service companies [ch 2: page 65] (356 words)

Chapter 3

3. Starting work and the employment contract [ch 3: pages 66-68] (1,124 words)

Most employers require a reference before they will employ someone. Young workers starting work are likely to have references from school or college, ...
Subscribers only

Checking a job applicant’s digital footprint [ch 3: page 68] (291 words)

The right to work in the UK [ch 3: pages 69-70] (628 words)

Health checks [ch 3: page 70] (251 words)

Criminal convictions [ch 3: pages 70-71] (481 words)

Criminal records checks [ch 3: pages 72-73] (803 words)

The employment contract [ch 3: pages 73-74] (273 words)

Written statement of employment particulars [ch 3: pages 74-77] (1,281 words)

Terms of the contract [ch 3: page 77] (52 words)

Express terms [ch 3: pages 77-81] (1,783 words)

Implied terms [ch 3: pages 81-85] (1,818 words)

Collective terms [ch 3: page 85] (299 words)

Incorporation of collective terms [ch 3: pages 86-89] (1,637 words)

Illegal contract terms [ch 3: pages 89-90] (307 words)

Restrictive covenants [ch 3: page 90] (225 words)

Contract changes [ch 3: pages 90-93] (1,225 words)

Breach of contract [ch 3: pages 93-94] (439 words)

Bringing a claim [ch 3: page 94] (326 words)

Chapter 4

4. Rights to pay and conditions [ch 4: page 95] (329 words)

The TUC suggests that reps closely review members’ written terms and conditions and all policies to ensure clarity as to exactly what is already ...
Subscribers only

The National Minimum Wage [ch 4: pages 95-96] (558 words)

Who is eligible for the National Minimum Wage [ch 4: pages 97-98] (280 words)

Agricultural workers [ch 4: page 98] (276 words)

Excluded workers [ch 4: pages 98-99] (160 words)

Calculating the National Minimum Wage [ch 4: pages 99-100] (394 words)

What pay counts towards the NMW [ch 4: pages 100-103] (1,588 words)

Hourly-paid workers [ch 4: page 104] (275 words)

Time spent sleeping for hourly-paid workers [ch 4: pages 104-106] (801 words)

Time spent travelling between assignments [ch 4: page 106] (193 words)

Mobile workers travelling to and from first and last assignment [ch 4: pages 106-107] (154 words)

Unmeasured work and daily average agreements [ch 4: page 107] (401 words)

Piece workers (‘output’ work) [ch 4: page 108] (153 words)

Homeworkers [ch 4: page 108] (102 words)

Records [ch 4: pages 108-109] (442 words)

NMW regulatory enforcement regime [ch 4: pages 109-110] (464 words)

Bringing an employment tribunal claim for the NMW [ch 4: pages 110-111] (293 words)

Pay slips and pay intervals [ch 4: pages 111-112] (311 words)

Deductions and underpayments [ch 4: pages 112-114] (1,131 words)

Overpayments and other exceptions [ch 4: pages 114-115] (504 words)

Guarantee pay (pay during lay-off or short-time working) [ch 4: pages 115-117] (791 words)

Paid medical suspension [ch 4: page 117] (158 words)

Overtime pay [ch 4: pages 117-118] (334 words)

Pensions [ch 4: page 118] (28 words)

Pensions auto-enrolment [ch 4: page 118-120] (648 words)

New state pension [ch 4: page 120] (231 words)

Public sector pension changes [ch 4: page 120] (145 words)

Working hours and breaks [ch 4: page 121] (301 words)

Health and safety purpose [ch 4: pages 121-122] (293 words)

Who is protected [ch 4: page 122] (74 words)

48-hour week [ch 4: page 122] (191 words)

Opting out of the 48-hour week [ch 4: page 123] (201 words)

Working time [ch 4: pages 123-124] (331 words)

Rest breaks [ch 4: pages 124-125] (625 words)

Daily and weekly rest periods [ch 4: pages 125-126] (364 words)

Travelling to and from work (mobile workers) [ch 4: page 126] (269 words)

Time “on call” [ch 4: page 127] (458 words)

Nightworkers [ch 4: pages 128-129] (550 words)

Nightwork and pregnancy [ch 4: page 129] (205 words)

Holidays and holiday pay [ch 4: pages 129-132] (1,259 words)

Calculating holiday pay [ch 4: pages 132-135] (965 words)

Notice of holiday [ch 4: page 135] (425 words)

Holidays and sickness absence [ch 4: page 136] (193 words)

Carrying forward unused holiday after sickness [ch 4: pages 136-137] (362 words)

Falling ill on holiday [ch 4: pages 136-137] (327 words)

Protection from automatically unfair dismissal or detriment [ch 4: pages 137-138] (284 words)

WTR record keeping [ch 4: pages 138-139] (386 words)

Contractual holiday rights [ch 4: page 139] (80 words)

Bank holidays [ch 4: pages 139-140] (215 words)

Sunday working [ch 4: page 140] (298 words)

Time off for public duties [ch 4: pages 140-141] (246 words)

Time off for study or training [ch 4: pages 141-142] (363 words)

Other statutory rights to time off [ch 4: page 142] (54 words)

Chapter 5

5. Union and collective organisation [ch 5: pages 143-144] (501 words)

Most union and collective organisation rights are found in the Trade Union and Labour Relations (Consolidation) Act 1992 (TULRCA), as amended. In ...
Subscribers only

Trade union rights are human rights [ch 5: pages 144-145] (727 words)

Outlawing of closed shop [ch 5: page 146] (56 words)

Voluntary recognition of a trade union [ch 5: page 146] (110 words)

Statutory recognition [ch 5: page 146] (196 words)

Accessing the statutory recognition procedure [ch 5: pages 146-149] (1,217 words)

Making an application for statutory recognition [ch 5: page 149] (57 words)

The bargaining unit [ch 5: page 149] (182 words)

Initial threshold of support [ch 5: pages 149-150] (199 words)

The statutory recognition ballot [ch 5: pages 150-151] (474 words)

The bargaining agenda [ch 5: page 151] (377 words)

De-recognition [ch 5: pages 152-154] (1,083 words)

Ban on offers intended to end collective bargaining [ch 5: pages 155-157] (1,007 words)

Paid time off for union duties [ch 5: pages 157-160] (1,373 words)

Unpaid time off for union activities [ch 5: page 160] (130 words)

Time off for representation duties [ch 5: page 160] (82 words)

Tribunal claims about time off rights [ch 5: page 160] (95 words)

Regulation of public sector facility time [ch 5: pages 160-163] (992 words)

Rights to information for collective bargaining [ch 5: pages 163-164] (476 words)

Protection of union members from unfavourable treatment [ch 5: pages 164-168] (1,817 words)

Anti-union blacklisting [ch 5: pages 168-170] (804 words)

Union litigation over historic blacklisting [ch 5: page 170] (92 words)

Undercover policing inquiry [ch 5: page 170] (294 words)

Interim relief [ch 5: page 171] (78 words)

Disciplinary action against union representatives [ch 5: page 171] (91 words)

Employee reps and European Works Councils [ch 5: page 171] (174 words)

National level information and consultation [ch 5: pages 171-172] (585 words)

Internal union matters [ch 5: pages 173-174] (529 words)

Membership audit [ch 5: page 174] (140 words)

Certification Officer [ch 5: pages 174-176] (555 words)

Industrial action return [ch 5: page 176] (79 words)

Check-off arrangements [ch 5: pages 176-177] (401 words)

Political funds [ch 5: pages 177-178] (675 words)

Data protection [ch 5: page 178] (36 words)

Chapter 6

6. Industrial action [ch 6: page 179] (128 words)

This Chapter outlines the UK’s industrial action laws, which are among the most restrictive in the developed world. The balloting and notice ...
Subscribers only

The right to strike [ch 6: pages 179-180] (559 words)

International criticism [ch 6: page 180] (180 words)

Brexit and strike action [ch 6: pages 180-181] (433 words)

The ‘immunities’ [ch 6: page 182] (147 words)

Trade dispute [ch 6: pages 182-184] (805 words)

Workplace reps [ch 6: page 184] (144 words)

Official or unofficial action [ch 6: pages 184-185] (600 words)

Strike law and the Trade Union Act 2016 [ch 6: pages 185-186] (349 words)

Balloting [ch 6: page 186] (39 words)

Ballot thresholds [ch 6: pages 186-189] (975 words)

The ballot process [ch 6: pages 189-193] (2,178 words)

Limited life of ballot mandate [ch 6: pages 193-194] (202 words)

Electronic strike balloting [ch 6: page 194] (107 words)

Requirements to notify employers [ch 6: pages 194-196] (1,082 words)

Ban on using agency workers to replace striking workers [ch 6: pages 196-197] (201 words)

Picketing [ch 6: page 197] (161 words)

Picket supervisor [ch 6: page 197] (209 words)

Letter of authorisation [ch 6: pages 198-199] (734 words)

Picket location [ch 6: pages 199-200] (508 words)

Criminal law [ch 6: page 200] (174 words)

Injunctions [ch 6: pages 201-202] (558 words)

Dismissal [ch 6: page 202] (171 words)

Detriment short of dismissal [ch 6: page 202] (110 words)

Deducting pay [ch 6: pages 202-203] (453 words)

Lockouts [ch 6: pages 203-204] (255 words)

State benefits for strikers [ch 6: page 204] (134 words)

Annual reporting duty — industrial action [ch 6: page 204] (145 words)

Chapter 7

7. Discrimination [ch 7: pages 205-206] (520 words)

Equality law in England, Wales and Scotland is regulated by the Equality Act 2010 (EA 10). Equality law in Northern Ireland broadly matches that of ...
Subscribers only

The protected characteristics [ch 7: page 206] (183 words)

Age [ch 7: pages 206-207] (280 words)

Employer’s defence of direct age discrimination [ch 7: pages 207-208] (891 words)

Disability [ch 7: pages 209-210] (606 words)

Knowledge of disability [ch 7: pages 210-212] (665 words)

Proving disability [ch 7: pages 212-213] (364 words)

People who had a disability but have since recovered [ch 7: page 213] (93 words)

Statutory guidance on the meaning of disability [ch 7: pages 213-214] (556 words)

Certain conditions deemed to be a disability [ch 7: page 214] (132 words)

Progressive conditions [ch 7: pages 214-215] (179 words)

Conditions that can be corrected by medication or treatment [ch 7: page 215] (187 words)

Recurring conditions [ch 7: page 215] (87 words)

Perceived disability [ch 7: pages 215-216] (283 words)

Gender reassignment [ch 7: pages 216-217] (391 words)

Marriage and civil partnership [ch 7: pages 217-218] (310 words)

Sexual orientation [ch 7: page 218] (38 words)

Race (including caste) [ch 7: pages 218-219] (352 words)

Religion or belief [ch 7: pages 219-221] (990 words)

Political beliefs [ch 7: page 221] (124 words)

Pregnancy or maternity [ch 7: pages 221-222] (205 words)

Sex [ch 7: page 222] (98 words)

Who is protected [ch 7: pages 222-223] (359 words)

Volunteers [ch 7: page 223] (90 words)

Interns [ch 7: page 223] (134 words)

Government consultation – volunteers and interns [ch 7: page 224] (83 words)

Workers outside Great Britain [ch 7: page 224] (90 words)

Illegality and discrimination [ch 7: page 224] (262 words)

Conduct prohibited by the Equality Act 2010 [ch 7: page 225] (60 words)

Direct discrimination [ch 7: pages 225-226] (519 words)

Associative and perceptive discrimination [ch 7: page 226] (230 words)

Less favourable treatment [ch 7: pages 226-227] (409 words)

Need for a comparator [ch 7: pages 227-228] (197 words)

Detriment [ch 7: page 228] (87 words)

Direct pregnancy and maternity discrimination [ch 7: pages 228-231] (1,301 words)

No defence to direct discrimination [ch 7: page 231] (112 words)

Exceptions [ch 7: page 232] (314 words)

Indirect discrimination [ch 7: pages 232-234] (794 words)

Defence to indirect discrimination [ch 7: pages 234-235] (416 words)

Harassment [ch 7: pages 235-238] (1,490 words)

Sexual harassment [ch 7: pages 238-239] (472 words)

Third party harassment [ch 7: page 240] (407 words)

Victimisation [ch 7: pages 240-242] (702 words)

Disability discrimination [ch 7: page 242] (79 words)

Discrimination ‘arising from’ disability [ch 7: pages 242-244] (835 words)

Reasonable adjustments [ch 7: pages 244-246] (719 words)

Auxiliary aids [ch 7: page 246] (70 words)

Physical features [ch 7: page 246] (66 words)

When is an adjustment “reasonable”? [ch 7: pages 246-248] (967 words)

Employer’s liability under EA 10 [ch 7: pages 249-250] (741 words)

Course of employment [ch 7: pages 250-251] (375 words)

Liability for agents [ch 7: page 251] (231 words)

Liability of unions [ch 7: pages 251-252] (284 words)

Applying for jobs [ch 7: pages 252-253] (595 words)

Access to promotion and job changes [ch 7: pages 253-254] (229 words)

Positive action [ch 7: page 254] (79 words)

Positive action under section 158, EA 10 [ch 7: page 254] (136 words)

Positive action in recruitment and promotion under section 159, EA 10 [ch 7: pages 254-256] (624 words)

Terms and conditions [ch 7: pages 256-259] (851 words)

Challenging cuts to terms and conditions [ch 7: page 259] (284 words)

Dress codes [ch 7: pages 259-260] (571 words)

Working hours and work organisation [ch 7: pages 261-263] (1,061 words)

Language at work [ch 7: pages 263-264] (489 words)

Disciplinary, capability and grievance procedures [ch 7: pages 264-265] (482 words)

Dismissal [ch 7: page 265] (78 words)

Redundancy [ch 7: page 265] (26 words)

Retirement [ch 7: pages 265-267] (566 words)

Equal pay [ch 7: page 267] (321 words)

Sex equality clause [ch 7: pages 267-268] (415 words)

What is equal work? [ch 7: pages 268-270] (587 words)

Comparators [ch 7: pages 270-271] (964 words)

The ‘genuine material factor’ defence [ch 7: pages 272-273] (746 words)

Indirect discrimination and equal pay [ch 7: pages 273-274] (302 words)

Part-time work and equal pay [ch 7: page 274] (147 words)

Pieceworkers and equal pay [ch 7: page 274] (49 words)

Length of service [ch 7: page 274] (33 words)

Time limits [ch 7: pages 274-275] (220 words)

Equal pay remedies [ch 7: page 275] (199 words)

Gender pay gap reporting [ch 7: pages 275-277] (676 words)

Asking questions about pay [ch 7: page 277] (254 words)

The Public Sector Equality Duty [ch 7: pages 277-278] (450 words)

Bringing a discrimination claim [ch 7: page 279] (152 words)

Proving discrimination — the burden of proof [ch 7: pages 279-281] (857 words)

Written grievance [ch 7: page 281] (210 words)

Asking questions about suspected discrimination [ch 7: pages 281-282] (175 words)

Time limits [ch 7: page 282] (236 words)

Continuing discrimination [ch 7: pages 282-283] (428 words)

Extending time to bring a discrimination claim [ch 7: pages 283-284] (353 words)

Length of service [ch 7: page 284] (37 words)

Claims against bodies other than employers [ch 7: page 284] (73 words)

Claims against individual discriminators and harassers [ch 7: page 284] (172 words)

Power to make recommendations [ch 7: page 285] (171 words)

Compensation [ch 7: pages 285-287] (871 words)

Confidentiality clauses and allegations of discrimination [ch 7: page 287] (90 words)

Chapter 8

8. Sick pay and sickness absence [ch 8: page 288-291] (959 words)

Here are the key temporary changes to sick pay and sickness absence arrangements arising out of the Coronavirus pandemic. ...
Subscribers only

Sickness absence and sick pay [ch 8: page 291] (324 words)

Eligibility for SSP [ch 8: pages 291-292] (353 words)

The Fit Note [ch 8: pages 292-293] (718 words)

Occupational sick pay [ch 8: pages 294-295] (646 words)

Establishing a contractual entitlement to sick pay [ch 8: pages 295-297] (1,021 words)

Disability and sick pay [ch 8: page 297] (140 words)

Phased returns and sick pay [ch 8: pages 297-298] (211 words)

Pregnancy and sick pay [ch 8: page 298] (249 words)

Keeping in touch with staff off sick [ch 8: pages 298-299] (256 words)

Sickness absence and holiday [ch 8: page 299] (37 words)

Absence management procedures [ch 8: page 299] (147 words)

Equality issues in absence management [ch 8: pages 299-300] (458 words)

Sickness absence dismissals and disability discrimination [ch 8: pages 300-302] (649 words)

Sickness absence and unfair dismissal law [ch 8: page 302] (78 words)

Unfair dismissal and long-term sickness absence [ch 8: pages 302-307] (1,974 words)

Dismissal due to unsatisfactory attendance [ch 8: pages 307-309] (866 words)

Dismissal for pregnancy-related sickness absence [ch 8: pages 309-310] (503 words)

Sickness absence and frustration of contract [ch 8: page 310] (165 words)

Employees off sick during the notice period [ch 8: page 310] (68 words)

Sickness absence and strike action [ch 8: pages 310-311] (223 words)

Sickness absence and redundancy selection [ch 8: page 311] (159 words)

The HSE management standards on workplace stress [ch 8: pages 311-312] (162 words)

Medical reports and the law [ch 8: page 312] (329 words)

Pre-employment health checks [ch 8: page 312] (74 words)

Chapter 9

9. Time off and other rights at work for working parents and carers [ch 9: page 313] (324 words)

This Chapter sets out the rights that are available to working parents and carers. ...
Subscribers only

Rights to time off for antenatal care [ch 9: pages 313-314] (176 words)

Time off rights for partners to attend antenatal appointments [ch 9: page 314] (195 words)

Time off rights for prospective adopters [ch 9: page 314] (176 words)

Time off for IVF appointments [ch 9: page 315] (256 words)

Enforcing rights to time off [ch 9: page 315] (59 words)

New rights to statutory bereavement leave and pay [ch 9: pages 315-316] (366 words)

Plans for neonatal leave and leave for unpaid carers [ch 9: page 316] (113 words)

Eligibility for statutory maternity leave [ch 9: page 316] (110 words)

Eligibility for statutory adoption leave [ch 9: page 317] (97 words)

Key elements of statutory maternity leave [ch 9: page 317] (81 words)

Key elements of statutory adoption leave [ch 9: page 317] (50 words)

Giving notice of intention to take statutory maternity leave [ch 9: pages 317-318] (208 words)

Giving notice of intention to take statutory adoption leave [ch 9: page 318] (116 words)

Statutory maternity leave start date [ch 9: page 318] (75 words)

Statutory adoption leave start date [ch 9: page 318] (45 words)

Returning to work early [ch 9: page 318] (45 words)

Sharing statutory maternity or adoption leave [ch 9: pages 318-319] (152 words)

Eligibility for shared parental leave (SPL) [ch 9: pages 319-320] (406 words)

Key elements of Shared Parental Leave [ch 9: page 320] (197 words)

Giving notice of intention to take shared parental leave [ch 9: page 320] (135 words)

Can a mother change her mind? [ch 9: page 321] (138 words)

Notice of intention to take SPL [ch 9: pages 321-322] (287 words)

Continuous and discontinuous leave [ch 9: page 322] (358 words)

Is SPL suitable? [ch 9: page 323] (241 words)

Rights during leave [ch 9: pages 323-324] (248 words)

Contact during leave [ch 9: page 324] (179 words)

Keeping in Touch (KIT and SPLIT) days [ch 9: pages 324-325] (282 words)

Ordinary Paternity Leave [ch 9: pages 325-326] (423 words)

Holiday entitlement during leave [ch 9: page 326] (229 words)

Returning to work [ch 9: pages 326-327] (553 words)

Statutory Maternity Pay [ch 9: page 328] (315 words)

Maternity Allowance (MA) [ch 9: pages 328-329] (171 words)

Statutory Adoption Pay [ch 9: page 329] (111 words)

Statutory Paternity Pay [ch 9: page 329] (40 words)

Statutory Shared Parental Pay [ch 9: page 329] (182 words)

Contractual maternity, shared parental or adoption pay [ch 9: page 330] (187 words)

Furlough and rights to parental leave and pay [ch 9: pages 330-331] (237 words)

Maternity leave and sick pay [ch 9: page 331] (119 words)

Maternity risk assessment and maternity suspension [ch 9: pages 331-332] (579 words)

Breastfeeding at work [ch 9: pages 332-333] (565 words)

Unpaid parental leave [ch 9: pages 334-335] (381 words)

Leave for family emergencies [ch 9: page 335-336] (633 words)

The right to request flexible working [ch 9: pages 336-337] (339 words)

The employee’s request [ch 9: page 337] (231 words)

The employer’s response [ch 9: page 338] (220 words)

The decision [ch 9: pages 338-339] (515 words)

Reform proposals – flexible working [ch 9: page 339] (132 words)

Flexible working and discrimination [ch 9: page 340] (147 words)

Enforcing the right to request flexible working [ch 9: page 340] (177 words)

New EU Directive on work-life balance [ch 9: page 340] (83 words)

Chapter 10

10. Dismissal [ch 10: page 341] (202 words)

To bring a claim for unfair dismissal you must: ...
Subscribers only

What is a dismissal? [ch 10: pages 341-343] (1,067 words)

Rights to notice and notice pay [ch 10: page 344] (136 words)

When employers give notice [ch 10: pages 344-346] (806 words)

When employees give notice [ch 10: page 346] (252 words)

Notice pay during sickness absence [ch 10: page 346] (94 words)

Non-renewal of a fixed-term contract [ch 10: page 346] (80 words)

Constructive dismissal [ch 10: page 347] (132 words)

Fundamental contract breach [ch 10: pages 347-348] (356 words)

Resignation must be in response to the breach [ch 10: page 348] (122 words)

The employee must not have waived the breach [ch 10: pages 348-349] (698 words)

Grievance [ch 10: page 350] (353 words)

Last straw cases [ch 10: page 351] (211 words)

Constructive dismissal — the main risks [ch 10: pages 351-352] (536 words)

What makes a dismissal unfair [ch 10: page 353] (205 words)

The five statutory fair reasons for dismissal [ch 10: page 353] (196 words)

Establishing the reason for dismissal [ch 10: pages 354-355] (538 words)

The right to written reasons for dismissal [ch 10: page 355] (131 words)

Was the dismissal reasonable? [ch 10: page 355] (94 words)

The band of reasonable responses [ch 10: pages 355-356] (284 words)

The importance of consistency [ch 10: pages 356-357] (400 words)

Capability dismissals [ch 10: page 357] (384 words)

Conduct dismissals [ch 10: pages 358-359] (549 words)

Gross misconduct [ch 10: pages 359-360] (364 words)

Disciplinary procedures [ch 10: pages 360-365] (2,082 words)

Warnings [ch 10: pages 365-366] (781 words)

Appeals [ch 10: pages 366-367] (511 words)

Redundancy [ch 10: page 368] (110 words)

Dismissals to comply with a legal duty or restriction [ch 10: page 368] (72 words)

Loss of driving licence [ch 10: page 368] (69 words)

Immigration status [ch 10: pages 368-369] (329 words)

Dismissals for some other substantial reason [ch 10: page 369] (196 words)

Dismissal for refusing to agree changes to terms and conditions [ch 10: pages 369-371] (623 words)

Dismissals due to breakdown in trust and confidence [ch 10: page 371] (122 words)

Dismissals due to third party pressure [ch 10: page 371] (127 words)

Dismissal for refusing to sign a restrictive covenant [ch 10: page 371] (72 words)

Dismissal for manifesting offensive political opinions [ch 10: pages 371-372] (110 words)

Dismissal due to return of original post-holder [ch 10: page 372] (114 words)

Dismissal for ending and non-renewal of a fixed-term contract [ch 10: page 372] (111 words)

Employees accused of a criminal offence [ch 10: pages 372-373] (272 words)

Retirement not a fair reason for dismissal [ch 10: page 373] (85 words)

Automatically unfair reasons for dismissal [ch 10: page 373] (80 words)

Dismissal and pregnancy and other parental rights [ch 10: pages 373-375] (607 words)

Dismissals and business transfers [ch 10: page 375] (81 words)

Dismissals and trade union membership [ch 10: pages 375-376] (489 words)

Dismissals and union recognition [ch 10: page 376] (26 words)

Dismissals and blacklisting [ch 10: page 376] (35 words)

Dismissals and representation rights [ch 10: page 376] (34 words)

Dismissal and industrial action [ch 10: pages 376-377] (478 words)

Dismissal for enforcing a statutory right [ch 10: pages 377-378] (120 words)

Dismissals and spent convictions [ch 10: page 378] (43 words)

Dismissal of part-time, fixed-term or employed agency workers [ch 10: page 378] (35 words)

Dismissal of employees on zero hours contracts [ch 10: page 378] (43 words)

Dismissals related to health and safety [ch 10: pages 378-379] (533 words)

Dismissal for refusing to work on Sundays [ch 10: page 379] (32 words)

Employee representatives and pension fund trustees [ch 10: page 379] (57 words)

Pension auto-enrolment [ch 10: page 380] (30 words)

National Minimum Wage and working time rights [ch 10: page 380] (37 words)

Dismissal for whistleblowing [ch 10: page 380] (31 words)

The effective date of termination [ch 10: pages 380-381] (414 words)

Extending time to bring an unfair dismissal claim [ch 10: pages 381-382] (723 words)

Continuous employment [ch 10: pages 382-383] (306 words)

Statutory rules on service continuity [ch 10: pages 382-385] (773 words)

Illegality and unfair dismissal rights [ch 10: page 385] (252 words)

Interim relief [ch 10: pages 385-386] (568 words)

Remedies: reinstatement or re-engagement [ch 10: pages 387-388] (656 words)

The basic award [ch 10: pages 388-389] (322 words)

The compensatory award [ch 10: page 389] (173 words)

What can be claimed [ch 10: pages 389-390] (223 words)

Mitigating losses [ch 10: pages 390-391] (589 words)

Contributory fault [ch 10: page 391] (250 words)

Other deductions and adjustments [ch 10: page 392] (233 words)

The statutory cap [ch 10: page 392] (172 words)

The additional award [ch 10: page 393] (60 words)

Interest and tax [ch 10: page 393] (106 words)

Insolvency [ch 10: page 393] (212 words)

Wrongful dismissal [ch 10: page 394] (197 words)

The statutory right to be accompanied [ch 10: pages 394-396] (1,177 words)

Chapter 11

11. Redundancy [ch 11: page 397] (64 words)

This Chapter sets out the individual rights of workers who are made redundant and also (from page 408) unions’ statutory rights to collective ...
Subscribers only

Coronavirus Job Retention Scheme [ch 11: pages 397-400] (1,139 words)

Redundancies and the law [ch 11: pages 400-401] (1,039 words)

Relocation redundancy [ch 11: pages 402-403] (612 words)

Reorganisation or change in duties [ch 11: pages 404-405] (614 words)

Has there been a redundancy dismissal? [ch 11: page 405] (113 words)

Voluntary redundancy [ch 11: pages 405-406] (474 words)

Ending of fixed-term contracts [ch 11: pages 406-407] (418 words)

Notice [ch 11: pages 407-408] (297 words)

Collective redundancy consultation [ch 11: pages 408-409] (547 words)

The duty to provide information to reps [ch 11: pages 409-410] (189 words)

Collective consultation, data protection and confidentiality [ch 11: page 410] (150 words)

When must consultation begin? [ch 11: pages 410-411] (581 words)

The subject matter of collective consultation [ch 11: pages 412-413] (704 words)

When does consultation end? [ch 11: page 413] (88 words)

Calculating the number of employees [ch 11: pages 413-414] (173 words)

Consultation over changes to terms and conditions [ch 11: page 414] (166 words)

Ending of fixed-term contracts [ch 11: page 414] (200 words)

The mechanics of collective consultation [ch 11: page 415] (73 words)

Who should be consulted [ch 11: pages 415-516] (723 words)

Rights to time off, facilities and training [ch 11: pages 416-417] (111 words)

The employer’s obligation to notify BEIS [ch 11: page 417] (96 words)

Protective award for failure to consult collectively [ch 11: page 417] (179 words)

Calculating the protective award [ch 11: pages 417-418] (277 words)

The ‘special circumstances’ defence [ch 11: pages 418-419] (699 words)

UK employees based overseas [ch 11: pages 419-420] (119 words)

Selection for redundancy [ch 11: page 420] (300 words)

Selection pool [ch 11: pages 420-421] (253 words)

Selection criteria and methods [ch 11: pages 421-422] (393 words)

Disability [ch 11: pages 422-423] (550 words)

Age [ch 11: page 423] (87 words)

Last in, first out [ch 11: page 424] (199 words)

Trade union membership and activities [ch 11: pages 424-425] (329 words)

Sex, pregnancy and maternity discrimination [ch 11: pages 425-426] (631 words)

Part-time and fixed-term employees [ch 11: pages 426-427] (267 words)

Apprentices [ch 11: pages 427-428] (524 words)

Individual redundancy consultation [ch 11: pages 428-429] (632 words)

Alternative work [ch 11: page 430] (308 words)

The statutory trial period [ch 11: pages 430-431] (446 words)

Suitable alternative employment [ch 11: pages 431-433] (639 words)

Enhanced duty to offer suitable available vacancy [ch 11: pages 433-435] (1,141 words)

Looking for work [ch 11: page 435] (110 words)

Unfair dismissal and redundancy [ch 11: pages 436-437] (559 words)

Challenging redundancy dismissals [ch 11: pages 437-438] (434 words)

Qualifying for redundancy rights [ch 11: page 438] (109 words)

Statutory redundancy pay [ch 11: pages 439-440] (483 words)

Enhanced redundancy pay [ch 11: page 440] (18 words)

Proving a contractual right to redundancy pay [ch 11: pages 440-442] (854 words)

Redundancy pay and age discrimination [ch 11: page 442] (140 words)

Threats to public sector termination payments [ch 11: pages 442-443] (371 words)

‘Claw-back’ of exit payments [ch 11: page 443] (100 words)

Redundancy payments and tax [ch 11: page 443] (76 words)

Redundancy pay linked to lay-off and short time working [ch 11: pages 443-444] (476 words)

Redundancy payments and insolvency [ch 11: pages 445-446] (664 words)

Chapter 12

12. Business transfers and contracting out — TUPE [ch 12: page 447] (429 words)

Business transfers and outsourcing, and their effect on the employment relationship, are regulated by the Transfer of Undertakings (Protection of ...
Subscribers only

Some key facts about TUPE [ch 12: pages 448-449] (545 words)

Who is covered by TUPE [ch 12: page 449] (202 words)

Relevant transfers [ch 12: pages 449-450] (154 words)

Business transfers [ch 12: pages 450-451] (608 words)

Service provision changes [ch 12: pages 451-452] (247 words)

No change in commissioning client [ch 12: page 452] (237 words)

Similarity of activities [ch 12: pages 452-454] (503 words)

Organised grouping of employees [ch 12: pages 454-455] (558 words)

Statutory exceptions to service provision change [ch 12: page 455] (69 words)

Single specific event or task of short-term duration [ch 12: pages 455-456] (484 words)

Activities consisting of the supply of goods [ch 12: page 456] (189 words)

Transfers to more than one transferee [ch 12: page 457] (213 words)

Service fragmentation [ch 12: pages 457-458] (532 words)

Who transfers [ch 12: pages 458-461] (1,156 words)

The transfer date [ch 12: page 461] (120 words)

Objecting to a transfer [ch 12: page 461] (146 words)

Transfer causing substantial detrimental change [ch 12: page 462] (395 words)

Workforce reorganisation before a transfer [ch 12: pages 462-464] (880 words)

Consultation and collective rights under TUPE [ch 12: pages 464-465] (296 words)

Who must be informed and consulted [ch 12: pages 465-466] (590 words)

What information must be provided to reps [ch 12: pages 466-467] (266 words)

Timescale for TUPE consultation [ch 12: page 467] (304 words)

Enforcement — protective award [ch 12: page 468] (281 words)

The special circumstances defence [ch 12: page 468] (111 words)

Pre-transfer consultation on collective redundancies [ch 12: pages 468-470] (684 words)

Employee liability information [ch 12: page 470] (157 words)

Transfers within public administration [ch 12: page 471] (213 words)

Return of the two-tier workforce [ch 12: pages 471-472] (459 words)

The effect of TUPE on terms and conditions [ch 12: pages 472-473] (582 words)

TUPE and pensions [ch 12: page 474] (380 words)

Early retirement benefits [ch 12: pages 474-475] (176 words)

Occupational pensions [ch 12: pages 475-476] (329 words)

Fair Deal for Pensions — public service outsourcing [ch 12: pages 476-477] (483 words)

Collective agreements and union recognition [ch 12: page 477] (152 words)

TUPE and contract change [ch 12: page 477] (128 words)

Changes to individual contract terms [ch 12: page 478] (306 words)

Economic, technical or organisational reason [ch 12: pages 478-479] (564 words)

Changes to collective terms [ch 12: pages 479-480] (341 words)

TUPE and sector-level bargaining [ch 12: pages 480-481] (599 words)

Contract changes unconnected to the transfer [ch 12: page 482] (198 words)

How long are contract terms protected by TUPE? [ch 12: page 482] (140 words)

TUPE protection against unfair dismissal [ch 12: pages 482-484] (895 words)

TUPE and insolvency [ch 12: pages 484-485] (237 words)

Varying contract terms in an insolvency [ch 12: page 485] (191 words)

Winding up the business [ch 12: page 486] (91 words)

Chapter 13

13. Whistleblowing [ch 13: page 487] (242 words)

Under the Public Interest Disclosure Act 1998 (PIDA), employees and workers who disclose information about certain types of alleged wrongdoing at ...
Subscribers only

Who is protected by the law [ch 13: pages 487-488] (579 words)

What disclosures are protected? [ch 13: pages 488-490] (628 words)

Who should disclosures be made to [ch 13: page 490] (233 words)

Claims and remedies [ch 13: page 490] (86 words)

Dismissal [ch 13: page 491] (266 words)

Detriment [ch 13: pages 491-492] (476 words)

New EU Directive on Whistleblowing [ch 13: page 492] (124 words)

Chapter 14

14. Bringing a tribunal claim [ch 14: page 493] (30 words)

This Chapter summarises the formal steps involved in bringing an employment tribunal claim and the main stages of the tribunal process. ...
Subscribers only

First steps — preparing for a claim [ch 14: page 493] (254 words)

Employment tribunal system during the coronavirus pandemic [ch 14: pages 493-494] (425 words)

Acas Early Conciliation [ch 14: pages 495-496] (1,003 words)

Tribunal time limits and Acas Early Conciliation [ch 14: pages 497-498] (534 words)

Abolition of employment tribunal fees [ch 14: page 498] (160 words)

ET1 Claim Form [ch 14: pages 498-499] (417 words)

What happens to the ET1 Claim Form [ch 14: page 499] (212 words)

Time limits [ch 14: pages 499-500] (252 words)

The overriding objective [ch 14: page 500] (70 words)

Initial consideration [ch 14: page 500] (82 words)

Case management orders [ch 14: pages 500-501] (175 words)

Making changes to the claim [ch 14: page 501] (129 words)

Judicial Assessment [ch 14: page 501] (94 words)

Schedule of loss and Statement of Agreed Facts [ch 14: page 501] (131 words)

Chronology [ch 14: page 501] (54 words)

Preliminary hearings [ch 14: page 502] (176 words)

Deposit order [ch 14: page 502] (201 words)

Striking out [ch 14: pages 502-503] (148 words)

Default judgment [ch 14: page 503] (42 words)

Unless Orders [ch 14: page 503] (182 words)

Exchange of documents [ch 14: pages 503-504] (614 words)

Fixing a hearing date [ch 14: page 505] (55 words)

Postponement requests [ch 14: page 505] (222 words)

Witness statements [ch 14: pages 505-506] (285 words)

The tribunal panel [ch 14: page 506] (159 words)

The main hearing [ch 14: pages 506-507] (371 words)

Judgment [ch 14: page 507] (148 words)

Costs orders [ch 14: pages 507-509] (601 words)

Enforcing tribunal awards and costs orders [ch 14: page 509] (198 words)

Financial penalties for ‘aggravated breach’ [ch 14: page 509] (72 words)

Appealing to the Employment Appeal Tribunal [ch 14: pages 509-510] (237 words)

Sources of legal advice and support [ch 14: page 510] (68 words)

Employees outside Great Britain [ch 14: page 510] (97 words)

Settling a claim [ch 14: pages 510-512] (822 words)

Without prejudice discussions [ch 14: pages 512-513] (130 words)

Protected conversations [ch 14: pages 513-514] (689 words)

Improper behaviour [ch 14: pages 514-515] (194 words)

Judicial mediation [ch 14: page 515] (95 words)

In-work mediation [ch 14: page 515] (90 words)

Chapter 15

15. Data protection, surveillance and monitoring [ch 15: page 516] (411 words)

Data protection law in the UK is governed by the EU General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) and by national law, the Data Protection Act 2018. ...
Subscribers only

The General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) [ch 15: pages 517-521] (1,683 words)

Casework [ch 15: page 521] (166 words)

Data subject access requests [ch 15: page 521] (226 words)

Monitoring at work [ch 15: pages 522-524] (1,077 words)

Privacy and data protection during the Coronavirus pandemic [ch 15: page 524] (221 words)

Further information

Further information (780 words)

Copies of relevant statutes and regulations are available online at: www.legislation.gov.uk. In Northern Ireland, legislation is published on the ...
Subscribers only