LRD Booklets August 2020

Health and Safety Law 2020

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Introduction

Introduction [pages 9-11] (1,112 words)

This latest edition of the Labour Research Department’s annual guide to health and safety law is being published in the midst of the coronavirus ...
Open access

Chapter 1

1. Working safely through the coronavirus pandemic [ch 1: page 12] (341 words)

The COVID-19 crisis has been caused by a new strain of coronavirus – a fairly common group of viruses and one of the main causes of the common cold. ...
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Impact on BAME workers and communities [ch 1: pages 12-13] (291 words)

Easing the lockdown restrictions [ch 1: pages 13-14] (602 words)

Self-isolating and protecting vulnerable groups [ch 1: pages 14-18] (1,176 words)

A safe return to work [ch 1: pages 18-25] (2,335 words)

Safety on public transport [ch 1: pages 25-26] (473 words)

Reopening of schools [ch 1: pages 26-27] (390 words)

NHS Test and Trace [ch 1: pages 27-28] (435 words)

Financial security for workers [ch 1: pages 28-30] (630 words)

Working at home safely [ch 1: pages 30-31] (886 words)

The UK’s safety record during the pandemic [ch 1: pages 32-33] (938 words)

Chapter 2

2. The structure of health and safety law [ch 2: pages 34-35] (694 words)

Government guidance on working safely during coronavirus (COVID-19) (see Chapter 1) makes clear this “does not supersede any legal obligations ...
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Other key changes and developments [ch 2: pages 35-36] (162 words)

Health and Safety at Work etc Act 1974 [ch 2: pages 36-37] (439 words)

Where does the HSWA apply? [ch 2: page 37] (181 words)

Key features of the HSWA [ch 2: pages 37-39] (985 words)

Personal injury claims changes [ch 2: page 40] (107 words)

The European Union, UK health and safety law and Brexit [ch 2: pages 40-42] (811 words)

Regulations, Approved Codes of Practice and guidance [ch 2: pages 42-43] (340 words)

Directors’ duties [ch 2: pages 43-44] (473 words)

Common law and statute law [ch 2: page 44] (322 words)

Chapter 3

3. The health and safety inspection and enforcement regime [ch 3: pages 45-47] (1,138 words)

The COVID-19 coronavirus pandemic has “exposed how in so many ways the current regulation and enforcement culture in the UK is lacking,” ...
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Other key changes and developments [ch 3: pages 47-48] (250 words)

Enforcement agencies and regulators [ch 3: pages 48-49] (480 words)

Inspections [ch 3: pages 50-51] (660 words)

Paying for enforcement — fee for intervention [ch 3: pages 51-52] (309 words)

Penalties — notices and fines [ch 3: page 52] (227 words)

Sentencing guidelines [ch 3: pages 52-54] (990 words)

HSE Enforcement Policy Statement [ch 3: pages 54-55] (265 words)

Investigating work-related deaths [ch 3: pages 55-56] (259 words)

Corporate manslaughter [ch 3: pages 56-58] (820 words)

Sentencing Council guidelines for gross negligence manslaughter [ch 3: pages 58-59] (359 words)

Hillsborough [ch 3: page 59] (137 words)

Grenfell Tower fire [ch 3: page 59] (83 words)

Culpable homicide Bill [ch 3: page 59] (157 words)

Crown immunity [ch 3: page 60] (134 words)

Chapter 4

4. The management of health and safety at work [ch 4: pages 61-63] (945 words)

The Management of Health and Safety at Work Regulations 1999 contain important legal duties for employers to minimise the risk of workplace ...
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The Management Regulations [ch 4: page 63] (105 words)

Risk assessments [ch 4: pages 63-65] (1,038 words)

The principles of prevention [ch 4: page 66] (136 words)

Monitoring [ch 4: page 66] (56 words)

Health surveillance [ch 4: page 66] (145 words)

Appointment of safety specialists [ch 4: page 67] (69 words)

Procedures for serious and imminent danger [ch 4: page 67] (212 words)

Information and training [ch 4: pages 67-68] (410 words)

Contract workers [ch 4: page 68] (46 words)

Temporary workers [ch 4: page 68] (77 words)

New and expectant mothers [ch 4: page 69] (363 words)

Workplace hazards for pregnant and breastfeeding women [ch 4: pages 69-71] (483 words)

Health, safety and pregnancy and maternity case law [ch 4: pages 71-73] (976 words)

Pregnant agency workers [ch 4: page 73] (107 words)

Pregnancy and night work [ch 4: page 73] (50 words)

HSE guidance [ch 4: page 73] (103 words)

Safety and pregnancy guide for reps [ch 4: page 73] (226 words)

Young workers [ch 4: pages 74-75] (351 words)

Chapter 5

5. Safety reps, safety committees and taking action on health and safety [ch 5: pages 76-78] (1,202 words)

Throughout the coronavirus pandemic, it has been clear the trade union movement’s 100,000 safety reps play a vital role in keeping workers safe. As ...
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The right to withdraw from an unsafe place of work [ch 5: pages 78-80] (1,019 words)

Other sources of legal protection [ch 5: page 80] (116 words)

Other key changes and developments [ch 5: page 81] (104 words)

The Safety Representatives and Safety Committees Regulations (SRSCR) [ch 5: page 81] (83 words)

The union effect on health and safety [ch 5: pages 81-82] (253 words)

Appointing safety reps [ch 5: page 82] (376 words)

Safety reps’ functions [ch 5: page 83] (106 words)

Consultation [ch 5: page 83] (262 words)

Facilities for safety reps [ch 5: page 84] (160 words)

Safety reps’ legal rights to paid time off [ch 5: page 84] (288 words)

Case law on time off for safety reps [ch 5: pages 85-86] (736 words)

Right to information [ch 5: pages 86-87] (233 words)

Safety committees [ch 5: page 87] (147 words)

Enforcement of the SRSCR [ch 5: page 87] (116 words)

Reporting problems to the HSE [ch 5: page 88] (295 words)

Consultation where there is no union recognition [ch 5: pages 88-89] (127 words)

Safety reps representing all staff [ch 5: page 89] (69 words)

Scope of employer’s obligation to consult [ch 5: page 89] (100 words)

The need for stronger regulations [ch 5: pages 89-90] (321 words)

Trade Union Act 2016 — threat to trade union facility time [ch 5: pages 90-91] (519 words)

Legal protection for workers taking action on safety [ch 5: pages 91-92] (559 words)

Protection for leaving the place of work [ch 5: pages 92-94] (676 words)

Reinstatement [ch 5: page 94] (324 words)

Compensation [ch 5: page 95] (72 words)

Whistleblowing — the Public Interest Disclosure Act 1998 [ch 5: page 95] (108 words)

Who is protected? [ch 5: pages 95-96] (320 words)

What disclosures are protected? [ch 5: pages 96-97] (801 words)

Liability and compensation [ch 5: pages 97-98] (301 words)

Take advice before whistleblowing! [ch 5: page 98] (99 words)

Interim relief [ch 5: page 99] (298 words)

Taking a case to a tribunal [ch 5: pages 99-100] (313 words)

Blacklisting [ch 5: pages 100-102] (867 words)

Chapter 6

6. The workplace and the working environment [ch 6: pages 103-104] (466 words)

The Workplace (Health, Safety and Welfare) Regulations 1992 lay down minimum standards for workplaces, the working environment and welfare facilities. ...
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Regulation on minimum workplace standards [ch 6: pages 104-105] (223 words)

Stability and solidity [ch 6: page 105] (76 words)

Maintenance [ch 6: page 105] (57 words)

Ventilation [ch 6: pages 105-106] (634 words)

Temperature [ch 6: pages 106-108] (535 words)

Lighting [ch 6: page 108] (121 words)

Cleanliness [ch 6: pages 108-109] (353 words)

Space [ch 6: page 109] (239 words)

Workstations and seating [ch 6: pages 109-110] (158 words)

Condition of floors [ch 6: page 110] (74 words)

Falls or falling objects [ch 6: page 110] (60 words)

Transparent surfaces and windows [ch 6: page 110] (66 words)

Doors and gates [ch 6: page 110] (27 words)

Organisation of traffic routes [ch 6: pages 110-111] (222 words)

Escalators and moving walkways [ch 6: page 111] (31 words)

Sanitary, washing and drinking facilities [ch 6: pages 111-112] (458 words)

Changing and storing clothing [ch 6: pages 112-113] (327 words)

Rest and eating facilities [ch 6: page 113] (245 words)

Disabled workers [ch 6: page 113] (60 words)

Accommodating breastfeeding [ch 6: page 114] (318 words)

Smoking [ch 6: pages 114-116] (1,081 words)

Driving at work [ch 6: page 117] (402 words)

Mobile phones and driving [ch 6: pages 117-118] (383 words)

Drug-driving limits [ch 6: pages 118-119] (478 words)

Driving standards for vision, diabetes and epilepsy [ch 6: page 119-120] (303 words)

Industry-specific health and safety laws [ch 6: page 120] (115 words)

Construction [ch 6: pages 120-122] (377 words)

Mines [ch 6: page 122] (62 words)

Offshore [ch 6: page 122] (157 words)

Chapter 7

7. Hazardous substances [ch 7: page 123] (48 words)

Under the Control of Substances Hazardous to Human Health Regulations 2002 (COSHH), hazardous substances include “biological agents” which in ...
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Risk assessments [ch 7: pages 123-124] (543 words)

Legionnaire’s disease and the coronavirus outbreak [ch 7: page 124] (94 words)

Risk classification of COVID-19 in the European Biological Agents Directive [ch 7: pages 124-125] (306 words)

Other key changes and developments [ch 7: page 125] (149 words)

Control of Substances Hazardous to Health (COSHH) [ch 7: pages 126-129] (1,527 words)

Carcinogens and mutagens [ch 7: page 130] (199 words)

Diesel fumes [ch 7: pages 130-131] (471 words)

Campaign to reduce the exposure limit for silica dust [ch 7: pages 131-132] (243 words)

Occupational Asthma [ch 7: page 132] (181 words)

Legionnaires’ disease [ch 7: pages 132-133] (216 words)

Needlestick or sharps injuries [ch 7: page 133] (158 words)

Chemicals information and packaging [ch 7: page 133] (163 words)

EU chemicals legislation and Brexit [ch 7: pages 134-135] (701 words)

Safety data sheets [ch 7: pages 135-136] (223 words)

Major accident hazards [ch 7: pages 136-137] (538 words)

Dangerous substances and explosive atmospheres [ch 7: pages 137-138] (475 words)

Asbestos [ch 7: pages 138-139] (301 words)

Controlling risks from asbestos [ch 7: pages 139-140] (406 words)

The duty to manage asbestos [ch 7: pages 140-141] (343 words)

Compensation for asbestos-related diseases [ch 7: pages 141-142] (609 words)

Pleural plaques [ch 7: page 142] (165 words)

Lead [ch 7: pages 142-144] (708 words)

Transport of dangerous goods [ch 7: page 144] (132 words)

Genetically modified organisms [ch 7: pages 144-145] (305 words)

Pesticides [ch 7: page 145] (95 words)

Chapter 8

8. Equipment and clothing at work [ch 8: page 146] (64 words)

In terms of health and safety and work equipment, the major area of concern during the coronavirus pandemic has been over personal protective ...
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PPE: the COVID-19 context [ch 8: page 146] (251 words)

PPE: government guidance [ch 8: pages 146-147] (249 words)

PPE: union advice [ch 8: page 147] (252 words)

Women given ill-fitting PPE during crisis [ch 8: pages 147-148] (166 words)

Homeworking [ch 8: page 148] (87 words)

Maintaining equipment [ch 8: pages 148-149] (222 words)

Other key changes and developments [ch 8: page 149] (71 words)

Display screen equipment [ch 8: pages 149-152] (1,171 words)

Machinery and other equipment [ch 8: pages 152-154] (996 words)

Lifting operations and equipment [ch 8: page 154] (206 words)

Supplying equipment and Brexit [ch 8: pages 154-155] (168 words)

Work at height [ch 8: page 155] (372 words)

Personal protective equipment [ch 8: pages 156-158] (1,025 words)

Head protection and turbans [ch 8: page 158] (59 words)

Product standards rules [ch 8: page 158] (120 words)

Women’s PPE [ch 8: pages 158-159] (211 words)

Discriminatory dress codes [ch 8: pages 159-160] (502 words)

Chapter 9

9. Physical hazards at work [ch 9: page 161] (105 words)

Because of the advice on restricting close personal contact during the coronavirus outbreak, the Health and Safety Executive (HSE) has published ...
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Other key changes and developments [ch 9: page 161] (119 words)

Manual Handling [ch 9: pages 161-162] (558 words)

Manual handling case law [ch 9: pages 163-164] (672 words)

Consultation with safety reps [ch 9: pages 164-165] (317 words)

Manual handling tools [ch 9: pages 165-166] (777 words)

Protection under the Equality Act 2010 [ch 9: page 167] (363 words)

Fire in buildings [ch 9: pages 167-168] (127 words)

Building Regulations [ch 9: page 168] (385 words)

Building Safety Bill [ch 9: page 169] (253 words)

Fire safety in workplaces [ch 9: pages 169-170] (258 words)

General fire precautions [ch 9: page 170] (173 words)

Risk assessment [ch 9: page 170] (78 words)

Preventive and protection measures [ch 9: pages 170-171] (393 words)

Information and training [ch 9: pages 171-172] (138 words)

Enforcement [ch 9: page 172] (143 words)

Fire safety law and guidance [ch 9: page 172] (92 words)

Fire Safety Bill [ch 9: pages 172-173] (474 words)

Noise [ch 9: page 173] (145 words)

Noise levels [ch 9: page 174] (315 words)

Noise risk assessment [ch 9: pages 174-175] (281 words)

Controlling noise [ch 9: pages 175-176] (231 words)

Hearing protection [ch 9: page 176] (300 words)

Information and training [ch 9: pages 176-177] (221 words)

Compensation for hearing loss [ch 9: page 177] (102 words)

Acoustic shock [ch 9: pages 177-178] (481 words)

Voice damage [ch 9: page 178] (120 words)

Vibration [ch 9: pages 179-180] (542 words)

Radiation [ch 9: pages 180-182] (693 words)

Radiation emergencies preparation [ch 9: page 182] (171 words)

Electromagnetic fields [ch 9: pages 182-184] (973 words)

Optical radiation [ch 9: pages 184-185] (417 words)

Electricity [ch 9: pages 185-187] (608 words)

Portable appliance testing [ch 9: page 187] (119 words)

Gas [ch 9: pages 187-188] (403 words)

Liquid Petroleum Gas (LPG) [ch 9: page 188] (226 words)

Confined spaces [ch 9: page 188] (106 words)

Pressure systems [ch 9: page 189] (102 words)

Work in compressed air [ch 9: page 189] (104 words)

Chapter 10

10. Hours of work [ch 10: page 190] (36 words)

The main legislative change relating to working time that has been introduced during the pandemic has been around the organisation of holidays. ...
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Carrying forward holiday [ch 10: page 190] (196 words)

Employers requiring workers to take or cancel holiday [ch 10: page 190] (214 words)

Workers cancelling pre-booked holidays [ch 10: page 191] (60 words)

Taking holiday while furloughed [ch 10: page 191] (63 words)

Bank holidays during the pandemic [ch 10: page 191] (108 words)

Other key changes and developments [ch 10: pages 191-192] (267 words)

The Working Time Regulations [ch 10: page 192] (98 words)

Brexit and working time [ch 10: pages 192-193] (249 words)

Working time rights – a summary [ch 10: page 193] (99 words)

What is working time? [ch 10: page 193] (116 words)

Travelling time [ch 10: pages 193-194] (340 words)

Time spent on union duties [ch 10: page 194] (53 words)

Time spent on call [ch 10: pages 194-195] (387 words)

Pay while on call [ch 10: pages 195-196] (323 words)

Unmeasured time [ch 10: page 196] (58 words)

Who has WTR rights [ch 10: page 196] (110 words)

Working time rights in the ’gig’ economy [ch 10: page 196-198] (533 words)

Non-mobile transport and offshore workers [ch 10: page 198] (63 words)

Mobile transport workers [ch 10: page 198] (269 words)

Drivers’ working hours [ch 10: page 199] (239 words)

Drivers’ hours and COVID-19 [ch 10: page 199] (163 words)

WTR exclusions and special cases [ch 10: page 200] (263 words)

Children and young workers [ch 10: pages 200-201] (366 words)

The maximum working week [ch 10: page 201] (158 words)

The UK’s 48-hour opt-out [ch 10: page 202] (249 words)

Enforcing the 48-hour week [ch 10: pages 202-203] (323 words)

Night and shift work [ch 10: pages 203-204] (348 words)

Night worker health assessments [ch 10: page 204] (224 words)

Nightwork and pregnancy [ch 10: page 204] (194 words)

Health risks of night work [ch 10: page 205] (328 words)

Daily rest [ch 10: page 205] (34 words)

Weekly rest [ch 10: page 206] (90 words)

Rest breaks [ch 10: pages 206-207] (430 words)

Compensatory rest [ch 10: page 207] (279 words)

Recording working time [ch 10: pages 207-208] (295 words)

Collective action on working time [ch 10: page 208] (114 words)

Holidays and holiday pay [ch 10: pages 208-209] (383 words)

Holiday entitlement [ch 10: page 209] (144 words)

Payment for holidays [ch 10: pages 209-212] (991 words)

Timing of holidays [ch 10: page 212] (233 words)

Offshore oil workers and paid holiday [ch 10: pages 212-213] (150 words)

Carrying unused leave forward [ch 10: page 213] (377 words)

Sick leave and holiday [ch 10: pages 213-214] (117 words)

Carrying forward holiday when sick [ch 10: page 214] (356 words)

Claiming holiday pay in the employment tribunal [ch 10: pages 214-215] (388 words)

Bank holidays [ch 10: page 215] (48 words)

Sunday working [ch 10: page 215] (72 words)

Agency workers’ enhanced rights [ch 10: page 216] (181 words)

Part-time workers [ch 10: page 216] (136 words)

WTR and collective and workforce agreements [ch 10: page 216] (59 words)

Enforcement of the WTR [ch 10: pages 216-217] (99 words)

Protection against detrimental treatment [ch 10: page 217] (46 words)

Compensation for injury to feelings [ch 10: page 217] (142 words)

Chapter 11

11. Dealing with accidents, injuries and ill health [ch 11: page 218] (229 words)

The Health and Safety Executive (HSE) has advised employers they must make a report under the Reporting of Injuries, Diseases and Dangerous ...
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First aid cover [ch 11: pages 218-219] (232 words)

Other key changes and developments [ch 11: page 219] (91 words)

Recording and reporting accidents [ch 11: page 219] (136 words)

What is reportable under RIDDOR? [ch 11: pages 219-221] (628 words)

Statistics on death and injury [ch 11: page 221] (254 words)

HSE statistics vastly underestimate problem [ch 11: page 222] (362 words)

The accident book [ch 11: page 223] (179 words)

Accident investigation [ch 11: page 223] (217 words)

Protecting health information [ch 11: page 224] (415 words)

Safety reps and personal information [ch 11: page 225] (296 words)

Pre-employment health checks [ch 11: pages 225-226] (137 words)

First aid regulation [ch 11: pages 226-227] (671 words)

First aid training [ch 11: pages 227-228] (155 words)

Guidance on the First Aid Regulations [ch 11: page 228] (310 words)

Occupational health [ch 11: pages 228-229] (171 words)

Fit for Work [ch 11: page 229] (81 words)

Fit notes [ch 11: pages 229-230] (403 words)

Returning to work after long-term absence [ch 11: page 230] (167 words)

Chapter 12

12. Stress, bullying, harassment and violence [ch 12: page 231] (391 words)

A survey by general union Unite found mental health to be topping workers’ concerns during the lockdown. The survey of 22,000 workplace activists ...
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Other key changes and developments [ch 12: pages 231-232] (170 words)

General duties [ch 12: page 232] (125 words)

Stress [ch 12: page 232] (151 words)

TUC/HSE joint guidance on stress [ch 12: pages 233-234] (538 words)

Enforcement of the Management Standards [ch 12: pages 234-235] (424 words)

Seeking legal redress for work-related stress [ch 12: pages 235-236] (621 words)

Mental health at work and discrimination [ch 12: pages 236-237] (617 words)

Bullying and harassment [ch 12: pages 237-238] (481 words)

EHRC guidance on dealing with harassment [ch 12: page 239] (246 words)

Common law protection [ch 12: page 239] (126 words)

Protection under the Equality Act 2010 [ch 12: page 239] (58 words)

Harassment by third parties [ch 12: page 239] (185 words)

Non-disclosure agreements [ch 12: page 240] (99 words)

Other protections [ch 12: page 240] (213 words)

Constructive dismissal [ch 12: page 241] (292 words)

Protection from Harassment Act 1997 [ch 12: pages 241-242] (224 words)

Violence [ch 12: page 242] (391 words)

Protection for emergency workers [ch 12: page 243] (220 words)

Retail and hospitality workers welcome Scottish Bill (133 words)

Employer criminal liability [ch 12: pages 243-244] (242 words)

Vicarious liability [ch 12: pages 244-246] (977 words)

Criminal Injuries Compensation Scheme [ch 12: page 246] (149 words)

Protection from dangerous dogs [ch 12: page247 ] (310 words)

Further information

Further information [pages 248-249] (423 words)

All regulations made since 1988 can be downloaded from the website at: www.legislation.gov.uk ...
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